Sahyadri ENews: LXXIII
Energy Trajectory of Karnataka, India

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T V Ramachandra,   Aparna Rajeev    Cite
ENVIS[RP], Environmental Information System, Energy and Wetlands Research Group,
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science - 560012      Phone: 080 22933099/22933503

Access to energy plays a pivotal role in day-to-day life of humans and society.. The availability and supply of energy differ across the globe based on the accessibility, ease of extraction, economic and social conditions (Ramachandra & Hegde, 2016) . Energy is one the most important requirement for all economic developments (Zahid, 2008) , as energy is the most determining factor in the production processes, and its scarcity impacts the economy. Energy has a vital role in chemical reactions, engineering, industries, transportation, cloud formation, functioning of cells, etc. Fossils fuels have been the main source of energy in industrial and transportation sectors with harmful effects on the environment (Ramachandra, 2000) . This necessitates a shift from non-renewable energy sources to renewable energy sources (Raina & Sinha, 2019) to meet the growing needs of energy apart fast dwindling stock of fossil fuels.
Evolution of energy use
As human beings evolved, there were many advancements in extracting and using energy. During prehistoric times around 1,000,000 years ago, the energy consumption of humans was only in the form of food. The daily energy consumption of primitive man was around 2000 Kcal (2000 dietary calories). The hunting man had 2.5 times the energy consumption of the primitive man as he started using wood for heating as well as cooking (Cook, 1971) . As the man started practicing agriculture, the energy consumption further increased three times than the hunting man. Likewise, energy consumption kept on increasing as human beings evolved. The industrial revolution of the 18th century, followed by the technological improvements in the 19th century, paved the way for more production and consumption of energy, but there was a decreasing trend in the availability of fossil fuel (Ramachandra, 2000) .
The global primary energy consumption was 13.9 billion oil equivalents. With an increasing world population of around 7.7 billion people, the average primary energy intake of 58 kWh per person per day. The world energy demand is expected to escalate six-fold with the likely increase of population to 10 billion in the future (Randall & Dieter, 2020) . The increase in population as well as the higher living standards led to an upsurge in energy consumption and demand. It also has adverse effects, which cause serious climatic changes and crucial environmental problems. Hence it is necessary to explore alternate renewable and eco-friendly resources (Richard et al., 2020) .
The energy resources can be classified based on their renewability. Renewable energy resources are the resources having shorter cycling time and will not get depleted by consumption. Solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydro energy, bioenergy are examples of renewable energy. Non-Renewable energy resources are the energy resources that will take millions of years to generate and get exhausted over time by consumption. Carbon-based fossil fuels like crude oil, petroleum, coal, natural gas are examples for non-renewables.
Based on the conventionality, the energy resources are classified as conventional energy fuels and non-conventional. Conventional energy resources are mostly non-renewable energy resources and have been used from time immemorial hence there it is likely to get depleted soon. Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, etc., are examples of conventional energy resources. Non-conventional energy resources are eco-friendly and renewable energy resources like that of solar, hydro, wind, biomass etc., which will not get replenished.

The total primary energy supply (TPES) is the cumulative value of production and imports, exempting the exports and storage variations(Jordan & Jason, 2020) . Secondary energy is the energy that is derived from primary energy resources by the human activated alterations which can be either by a chemical or physical process, as it cannot be harvested directly from nature. Secondary energy includes gasoline, liquid fuel oils, biofuels, electricity, etc. (Allison et al., 2020 ).
Energy Scenario in India
India is the 2nd most populous country in the world. As per the census, the population of India is 1.39 Billion in the year 2021, which is roughly one-sixth of the world’s total population(India Population (2020), 2020). India is the seventh largest in geographic area and ranks third among high energy consuming countries in the world (Ramachandra & Hegde, 2016 ) . The energy consumption in different parts of India varies depending on population density, geography, industrial and commercial development, etc.
The power network in India is distributed in five regions: (1) The Northern Region, (2) The Western Region, (3) The Southern Region, (4) The Eastern Region and (5) The North-Eastern Region (Madurai Elavarasan et al., 2020) . India being the 3rd largest energy consumer of the world and the availability of energy reflects in the improvements in the living standards of the people of India. Energy consumption witnessed a doubling in its quantity since the year 2000, and 80% of the energy demand in India was met by coal, oil, and solid biomass (India Energy Outlook 2021 – Analysis - IEA, 2021). The rural population in India contributes 66.40% of the total population (World Bank Group, 2019). Nearly 75% of the rural household in India depends upon firewood, 10% on dung cakes, 5% on liquified petroleum gas for domestic purposes (Ramachandra & Hegde, 2016) .
In India, the main energy resources are coal, lignite, natural gas (conventional energy resources); solar, hydro, wind, bioenergy (non-conventional energy resources). It was seen that the consumption of the coal and lignite remained almost unchanged, but there was an increase of 6.6% of natural gas consumption by 2018. As per the 2017-2018 data, the highest consumer of the energy was the industrial sector (289.54 mtoe) followed by the transport sector (94.35 mtoe), residential consumption (56.83 mtoe) and the agricultural sector (27.18 mtoe) (TERI, 2019) .
Figure 1 shows the total installed capacity of India as on February 2021. The installed capacity of the thermal power plants in the country is 233171 which is more than 60% of the total.

Fig.1. Power Sector in India: Installed capacity as on 28.02.2021 (Source: Ministry of Power)
Energy Scenario in Karnataka
Karnataka is the eighth largest state in India, having a geographical area of 191791 sq. km and has a population of approximately 611.31 million as per the 2011 census (SSA Booklet, 2011) . Karnataka relies on commercial energy sources like coal, oil, petroleum, electricity, etc. and non-commercial sources of energy like fuelwood, dung-cakes, agricultural and horticultural residues, etc. During the year 1990-1991, nearly 55% of the commercial energy was in the form of electricity, and a major share of energy was from bioresources like fuelwood. As the years passed, there was an abrupt increase in the electricity share (Ramachandra, 2000) . The Karnataka state can easily manage its energy demand in the upcoming decades with the advantage of the available renewable energy resources. The state helps India in its decarbonisation programme as it reduces emissions by using renewable energy rather than fossil fuels to meet the energy demand and bolster the economy. In 2019 Karnataka’s solar capacity makes up nearly 22% of India’s total installed capacity (Udetanshu et al., 2020) . As per Renewable Energy Progress Report (up to March 2021) from Karnataka Renewable Energy Development Ltd, the commissioned solar capacity of Karnataka is 7389.01MW.

Fig. 2 Power Generation in Karnataka: Source-wise Installed capacity as on 31.12.2020 (Source: Karnataka Energy Department)
Figure 2 gives the source-wise installed capacity of Karnataka. The total installed capacity of Karnataka state as on 31.12.2020 is 30208 MW in which Solar Energy Source constitutes more than 7000 MW.
Over the past years there was huge economic growth in the state of Karnataka due to the growth and development in the industrial and services sector. The state has also emerged to be India’s IT hub (Singhvi et al., 2014) . This study investigates the energy trajectory in Karnataka. The assemblage of factors like the state's growing population, increase in energy consumption, the supply-demand gap, climate change, etc. necessitated the energy budgeting in Karnataka to develop a green growth strategy meeting all its developmental goals of the state.
The focus of the current issue of Shayadri E-News are:
⦁ Assessment of the resource status in the state of Karnataka by estimating the resource availability and assessing the resource share based on commercial or non-commercial energy sources.
⦁ Quantifying the energy generated by analysing the progress in the installed capacities and generation from different power plants, including bio-energy (biogas and biomass).
⦁ Analysing the district-wise energy demand in Karnataka by calculating the sector-wise per capita consumption.
⦁ Evaluating the per capita electricity consumption and fuelwood consumption district-wise based on the data from the latest census report as well as calculating the fuel consumed in power generating stations, industries, and transportation sector.
⦁ Studying the prospects of renewable energy for an eco-friendly and environmentally sustainable energy use. Evaluating the district-wise generation potential of renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy and the bio-energy with the help of distributed generation and smart grids.
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