ID: 65919
Title: Ecologically Sensitive Regions in the Western Ghats, a Biodiversity Hotspot
Author: T V Ramachandra Bharath Setturu Vinay S M D Subash Chandran Bharath H Aithal
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2023
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Ecologically Sensitive Regions in the Western Ghats, a Biodiversity Hotspot Pg: 1-541, ETR: 200, SCS: 128 15 Aug 2023
Subject: Ecologically Sensitive Regions in the Western Ghats, a Biodiversity Hotspot
Keywords: Ecological fragility, spatial decision support system (SDSS), endemic taxa, energy. Ecology, bio-geo-climatic aspects
Abstract: Ecological sensitivity or fragility refers to the permanent and irreparable loss of extant life forms or significant damage to the natural processes of evolution and speciation with the alterations in the ecological integrity of a region. The comprehensive knowledge of the ecological fragility of a region is quintessential for evolving strategies for conserving the area, which entails identifying factors responsible for ecological sensitiveness, including landscape dynamics, and visualizing future transitions to mitigate the problems of haphazard and uncontrolled development approaches. The region witnessed large-scale land cover changes during the past century due to unplanned developmental activities involving industrialization. Globalisation and relaxing market norms led to rapid urbanisation with large-scale land cover changes. This necessitates implementing mitigation measures involving stakeholders to address the impacts through location-specific conservation measures. Framing conservation and sustainable developmental policies entail delineating ecologically sensitive regions by integrating bio-geo-climatic, ecological, and social factors representing the dynamics of socioecological systems, impacts, and drivers.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Aggarwal, A., Paul, V. and Das, S., 2009. Forest resources: Degradation, livelihoods, and climate change. Looking back to change track, 219, pp.91-108. Almeida, D.R., Stark, S.C., Schietti, J., Camargo, J.L., Amazonas, N.T., Gorgens, E.B., Rosa, D.M., Smith, M.N., Valbuena, R., Saleska, S. and Andrade, A., 2019. Persistent effects of fragmentation on tropical rainforest canopy structure after 20 yr of isolation. Ecological Applications, 29(6), p.e01952.
Literature cited 2: Aldieri, L., Carlucci, F., Vinci, C.P. and Yigitcanlar, T., 2019. Environmental innovation, knowledge spillovers and policy implications: A systematic review of the economic effects literature. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, p.118051. Andronache, I., Marin, M., Fischer, R., Ahammer, H., Radulovic, M., Ciobotaru, A.M., Jelinek, H.F., Di Ieva, A., Pintilii, R.D., Drăghici, C.C. and Herman, G.V., 2019. Dynamics of forest fragmentation and connectivity using particle and fractal analysis. Scientific reports, 9(1), pp.1-9.


ID: 65918
Title: Grid-based monitoring of natural resources at disaggregated levels in Raichur district, Karnataka
Author: T V Ramachandra Paras Negi Bharath Setturu
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2024
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Grid-based monitoring of natural resources at disaggregated levels in Raichur district, Karnataka Pg : 1-50 ETR: 201, SCS: 129
Subject: Grid-based monitoring of natural resources at disaggregated levels in Raichur district, Karnataka
Keywords: Natural Resource Rich Regions; Land use Land cover; Random Forest; Modeling; Sustainable Development; Supervised classification; Machine Learning.
Abstract: Land use and land cover (LULC) assessment using temporal remote sensing data provides insights into landscape status, which is crucial for the prudent management of natural resources. Integrated spatial analyses with LULC information with social, ecological, hydrological, bio-geo-climatic, and environmental variables would aid in the prioritization of natural resources-rich regions (NRRRs). The current study assesses the LULC change in an agrarian district using temporal remote sensing data through a supervised machine learning technique- Random Forest (RF). The study reveals that built-up area had increased from 0.23% (1973) to 1.04% (2022), agricultural area had increased from 84.55% (1973) to 93.43% (2022), water body had increased from 0.38% (1973) to 0.92% (2022). There has been an increase in paddy cultivation spatial extent from 0.74% (1973) to 18.41% in the region with the increase in the extent of water bodies due to the Krishna and Tungabhadra River. The condition of forests assessed through fragmentation metrics indicates the decline of intact forest cover from 4.19% (in 1973) to 3.08% (in 2022), and non-forest area accounted for 95.87% in 2022 from 92.03 % in 1973. The likely land uses in 2022, 2030, and 2038 are predicted using Cellular Automata. The simulated LU for 2038 shows the likely increase in built-up by 671 km 2 with a decline of agriculture land by 1159.33 km 2 and an expansion of the road network and industrial area. This necessitates the identification of natural resources rich regions (NRRRs) for formulating effective policies for prudent management of natural resources to achieve sustainable development goals (SDG) by exploring all feasible dimensions and analyzing the patterns and dynamics across various interdisciplinary themes such as social, hydrological, ecological and bio-geo-climatic.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Barros, R. S., Barreto, M. R., & Falcão, A. X. (2020). Accurate classification of Brazilian Cerrado vegetation using machine learning classifiers. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192(3), 166. Belgiu, M., Drǎguţ, L., & Strobl, J. (2014). Quantitative evaluation of variations in rule-based classifications of land cover in urban neighbourhoods using WorldView-2 imagery. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 87, 205-215.
Literature cited 2: Bharath, S., Rajan, K. S., & Ramachandra, T. V. (2013). Land surface temperature responses to land use land cover dynamics. Geoinfor Geostat: An Overview, 54, 50-78. Bharath, S., Rajan, K. S., & Ramachandra, T. V. (2014). Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats-CA based approach. ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, 2(8), 69.


ID: 65917
Title: Grid Based Mapping of Natural Resource-Rich Regions in Bidar district, Karnataka
Author: T V Ramachandra Paras Negi
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2024
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Grid Based Mapping of Natural Resource-Rich Regions in Bidar district, Karnataka Pg 1-46 , ETR: 202, SCS: 130
Subject: Grid Based Mapping of Natural Resource-Rich Regions in Bidar district, Karnataka
Keywords: LULC change, supervised learning, Machine learning, Random Forest, Natural Resource-Rich Regions, CA-Markov.
Abstract: Natural Resource Rich Regions (NRRRs) are ecologically and economically vital regions that support the livelihood of people through the sustained ecosystem process involving the interaction among biotic and abiotic elements. Identifying NRRRs, considering spatially ecological, geoclimatic, biological, and social dimensions, would help in conservation planning and prudent management of natural resources as per the Biodiversity Act 2002, Government of India. Changes in the landscape structure would lead to alterations in the composition and health of these regions with irreversible changes in the ecosystem process, impacting the sustenance of natural resources. The anthropogenic activities have been the major driver for landscape dynamics with the largescale land use and land cover (LULC) changes. Unplanned and uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources due to industrial developmental activities has escalated rates of LULC changes that led to ecosystem degradation. Spatio-temporal LULC change information provides insights into affecting factors and their impacts on the landscape. Bidar district has witnessed drastic growth in rural built-up areas and the expansions of the National Investment & Manufacturing Zone [NIMZ], in response to the State’s industrial policy of 2014-19 for industrial development. Supervised machine learning technique - Random Forest (RF) was used to assess land use dynamics. Random forest is an ensemble of decision trees maintaining multi-variance and minimizes the correlation among decision trees, in addition, it is less sensitive to noise and reduction of training. Modeling of likely land use aided in the identification of ecologically fragile areas. CA-Markov model is a dynamic model for predicting LULC changes and can simulate long-term predictions of spatial variation of complex patterns. The current study suggests that there is a need to establish robust systems to frame effective policy and make interventions for the conservation and restoration of natural resources.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Abijith, D., & Saravanan, S. (2021). Assessment of land use and land cover change detection and prediction using remote sensing and CA Markov in the northern coastal districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-13. Adam, E., Mutanga, O., Odindi, J., & Abdel-Rahman, E. M. (2014). Land-use/cover classification in a heterogeneous coastal landscape using RapidEye imagery: evaluating the performance of random forest and support vector machines classifiers. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(10), 3440-3458.
Literature cited 2: Adhikari, S., & Southworth, J. (2012). Simulating forest cover changes of Bannerghatta National Park based on a CA-Markov model: a remote sensing approach. Remote Sensing, 4(10), 3215-3243. Ahmad, F., Goparaju, L., & Qayum, A. (2017). LULC analysis of urban spaces using Markov chain predictive model at Ranchi in India. Spatial Information Research, 25(3), 351-359.


ID: 65916
Title: Grid-based Natural Environment Mapping to delineate Eco Sensitive Zones (ESZ) in Chikamagaluru district, Karnataka
Author: T V Ramachandra Tulika Mondal Bharath Setturu
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2023
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Grid-based Natural Environment Mapping to delineate Eco Sensitive Zones (ESZ) in Chikamagaluru district, Karnataka Pgno1-61 ETR: 203 , SCS: 131
Subject: Grid-based Natural Environment Mapping to delineate Eco Sensitive Zones (ESZ) in Chikamagaluru district, Karnataka
Keywords: Land use Land cover (LULC), Forest Fragmentation, Carbon Assessment, CA-Markov, Random Forest, Machine Learning, Eco sensitive Zones (ESZs)
Abstract: Eco sensitive zones (ESZ) or Livelihood Lifeline Regions (LLR) are the vulnerable areas with high sensitivity and fragility based on the environmental aspect, where unplanned large-scale developmental activities can cause large-scale disturbances in the natural structure of the biological communities and natural habitats, affecting the ecosystem processes. Integrated landscape assessment including biological, geological, climatic, ecological, environmental and social characteristics are required to delineate ESZs which will aid in conservation of ecological balance in the environment for planning interventions to ensure sustainable development. This study is focused on understanding the spatial extent of ESZs with the help of landscape dynamics from 1973 to 2021 by implementing Machine learning (ML) algorithms in Chikamagaluru district or the Coffee land of Karnataka, India. Temporal land use land cover (LULC) analyses were carried out using Landsat series data from 1973 to 2021 through Random Forest classifier (supervised machine learning algorithm). The Land cover analysis through NDVI showed decline in vegetation cover by 2.77% due to unplanned developmental activities along with enhanced agriculture and horticultural activities. The land use analysis showed a decline in spatial extent of forest cover of 32.77% in expense of agriculture (6.13%) and horticulture (43.14%) in last five decades. Rapid urbanisation and infrastructural developments have also led to increase in builtup areas by 151.33 sq. km. Analysis of the condition of forests through fragmentation metrics showed that spatial extent of interior forest has decreased from 55.72% to 28.05% in last five decades. As a result, 3068.79 Gg of Carbon has been lost which was evident from carbon assessment of the forest ecosystem through InVEST model. Simulation of the land use in business-as-usual scenario has also been carried out to understand the impact of the current rate of land use transitions in the next two decades, with the help of Markov and Cellular Automata techniques; which showed that the area under agriculture and horticulture is likely to increase to 34.26% and 31.96%, respectively in 2038 and forest would continue to decrease (2038). The weights of all bio-geo-climate-ecological-social variables were aggregated and categorised Chikamagaluru district into 4 zones of ecological fragility where 309 and 410 villages are under ESZ1 and ESZ2 category (highest ecological fragility). The prioritization of ecological sensitive zones or LLRs at disaggregated levels in Chikamagaluru district will aid in planning for sustainable development with conservation of the fragile ecosystems to sustain livelihood of people with the sustenance of natural resources and minimal disasters (floods, land slides, mud slides).
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Anandhi, A., Douglas-Mankin, K. R., Srivastava, P., Aiken, R. M., Senay, G., Leung, L. R., & Chaubey, I. (2020). DPSIR-ESA vulnerability assessment (DEVA) framework: synthesis, foundational overview, and expert case studies. Transactions of the ASABE, 63(3), 741-752. 10. 2 https://doi.org/10.13031/trans.13516 Attri, P., Chaudhry, S., & Sharma, S. (2015). Remote sensing & GIS based approaches for LULC change detection–a review. Int. J. Curr. Eng. Technol, 5, 3126-3137.
Literature cited 2: Batar, A. K., Watanabe, T., & Kumar, A. (2017). Assessment of land-use/land-cover change and forest fragmentation in the Garhwal Himalayan Region of India. Environments, 4(2), 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/environments4020034 Beinat E (1997). Value functions for environmental management. Kluwer Academic, Boston, p 241


ID: 65915
Title: IISc_EIACP: Environmental Information, Awareness, Capacity Building and Livelihood Programme (EIACP)
Author: T V Ramachandra
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2023-2024
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: IISc_EIACP: Environmental Information, Awareness, Capacity Building and Livelihood Programme (EIACP) 2023-24 Pg 1-300
Subject: ISc_EIACP: Environmental Information, Awareness, Capacity Building and Livelihood Programme (EIACP)
Keywords: None
Abstract: ENVIS_IISC [RP] has conducted the series of webinars under MISSION LIFE and Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat scheme. The webinar details were shared across the various social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and WhatsApp. The webinars received large participation from students, reserachers, faculties and others across the globe. The webinars are archived under YouTube platform for the benefit of global community. The webinars were focused on the topics such as “Mangroves, Climate Change, Integrated Costal Management, Diatoms, Geospatial technology, Great lake ecosystem”.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1:
Literature cited 2:


ID: 65914
Title: Inventorying, Mapping, and Monitoring of Natural Resources at Grid levels using Temporal Remote Sensing Data in Bellary district, Karnataka
Author: T V Ramachandra Paras Negi Bharath Setturu
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2023
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Inventorying, Mapping, and Monitoring of Natural Resources at Grid levels using Temporal Remote Sensing Data in Bellary district, Karnataka Pg No: 1-56 ETR: 199 SCS: 199 15 Nov 2023
Subject: Inventorying, Mapping, and Monitoring of Natural Resources at Grid levels using Temporal Remote Sensing Data in Bellary district, Karnataka
Keywords: LULC, Forest Fragmentation, CA-Markov, Random Forest (RF), Natural Resource Rich Regions (NRRRs).
Abstract: Temporal land use and land cover (LULC) information of a landscape provide comprehensive knowledge about the factors affecting the landscape dynamic and their impacts on the ecosystem (biotic and abiotic elements). Accelerating anthropogenic activities leads to the over-exploitation of natural resources and changes in the climate regime. Bellary district in the southern Indian state of Karnataka is known for its rich mineral resources and diverse landscapes. The region has witnessed significant land use changes, primarily due to urbanization, industrialization, and mining activities. These changes have adverse effects on the environment, including loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, and water pollution. The study highlights the significance of using supervised machine learning techniques for the classification of land use namely random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM), and parametric maximum likelihood classifier (MLC). The performance of these algorithms was evaluated through accuracy assessments. Results reveal that RF has the highest overall accuracy (88.94%) and Kappa value (0.76) compared to overall accuracy, and Kappa of MLC (85.51%, 0.74) and SVM (85.47%, 0.63). Based on this, RF was considered for temporal data analyses, which highlight the decline of forest cover from 2.61% (1973) to 0.74% (2022). The built-up has increased from 0.27% (1973) to 2.43% (2022), and agriculture from 68.21% (1973) to 84.95% (2022). Fragmentation of contiguous forests is evident from the decline in the interior or intact forests from 6.73% (1973) to 2.41% (2022) and the increase in the non-forest areas such as built-up, agriculture, etc. amounting now to 89.81%. The current study highlights the importance of sustainable land use management practices to protect the environment and the need for efficient tools such as supervised machine learning techniques for land use classification and analysis. Simulation and prediction have been performed through the hybrid CA-Markov method for 2030 and 2038. The predicted results show that the built-up area will increase considering the current rate of land use change. NRRRs are prioritized in the study region based on the biological, ecological, geo-climatic, hydrological, and social aspects. A weightage matrix has been used for the classification of NRRRs into four regions NRRR 1 and NRRR 2 (highly sensitive and any alterations are not permitted), NRRR 3 (moderate sensitive and developmental activities are allowed with stringent environmental norms), and NRRR 4 (less sensitive and suitable for the development activities) based on conservation aspects. Prioritization of NRRRs helps in a systematic framework for the sustainability of natural resources with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of decision-makers and local stakeholders.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Abdi, A. M. (2020). Land cover and land use classification performance of machine learning algorithms in a boreal landscape using Sentinel-2 data. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 57(1), 1-20. Adam, E., Mutanga, O., Odindi, J., and Abdel-Rahman, E. M. (2014). Land-use/cover classification in a heterogeneous coastal landscape using RapidEye imagery: evaluating the performance of random forest and support vector machines classifiers. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(10), 34403458.
Literature cited 2: Aithal, B. H., & Ramachandra, T. V. (2016). Visualization of urban growth pattern in Chennai using geoinformatics and spatial metrics. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, 44, 617-633. Aithal, B. H., Vinay, S., Durgappa, S., & Ramachandra, T. V. (2013, November). Modeling and simulation of urbanisation in greater Bangalore, India. In Proc. of National Spatial Data Infrastructure 2013 conference, IIT Bombay (pp. 34-50).


ID: 65913
Title: Grid-based Environmental Monitoring to Identify Ecologically Sensitive Regions in Dharwad district, Karnataka
Author: T V Ramachandra Bharath Setturu Karthik Naik
Editor: Dr TV Ramachandra
Year: 2023
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Grid-based Environmental Monitoring to Identify Ecologically Sensitive Regions in Dharwad district, Karnataka Pg No. 1-54 ETR : 198 SCS:126 July 2023
Subject: Grid-based Environmental Monitoring to Identify Ecologically Sensitive Regions in Dharwad district, Karnataka
Keywords: None
Abstract: Ecological sensitivity or fragility refers to permanent and irreparable loss of extant life forms or significant damage to the natural processes of evolution and speciation with the alterations in the ecological integrity of a region. The comprehensive knowledge of the ecological sensitivity of a region is quintessential for evolving strategies for conserving the area, which entails identifying factors responsible for ecological sensitiveness, including landscape dynamics, and visualizing future transitions to mitigate the problems of haphazard and uncontrolled development approaches. Landscape indicates heterogeneity of the terrain containing interacting diverse ecosystem elements, governed by the natural processes, which depends on the land cover and land use dynamics. Alterations in the LULC due to unplanned anthropogenic activities have affected the landscape dynamics with changes in the landscape structure leading to ecological imbalance evident from alterations in the hydrologic regime, decline in ecosystem services, etc.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Abijith, D. and Saravanan, S., 2022. Assessment of land use and land cover change detection and prediction using remote sensing and CA Markov in the northern coastal districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(57), pp.86055-86067. Agustina, I.H., Aji, R.R., Fardani, I., Rochman, G.P., Ekasari, A.M. and Mohmed, F.A.J., 2022. Cellular Automata for Cirebon City Land Cover and Development Prediction. Planning Malaysia, 20.
Literature cited 2: Akshaya, M., Danumah, J.H., Saha, S., Ajin, R.S. and Kuriakose, S.L., 2021. Landslide susceptibility zonation of the Western Ghats region in Thiruvananthapuram district (Kerala) using geospatial tools: A comparison of the AHP and Fuzzy-AHP methods. Safety in Extreme Environments, 3, pp.181-202. Amiri, B.J. and Nakane, K., 2009. Modeling the linkage between river water quality and landscape metrics in the Chugoku district of Japan. Water resources management, 23, pp.931-956.


ID: 65912
Title: GRID-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORYING AND MAPPING IN RAMANAGARA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
Author: T V Ramachandra Vinayaka Bhatta Bharath Setturu
Editor: T.V. Ramachandra
Year: 2023
Publisher: Energy &Wetlands Research Group
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: GRID-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORYING AND MAPPING IN RAMANAGARA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA Pg No.1-55 ETR 196, SCS 124
Subject: GRID-BASED NATURAL RESOURCE INVENTORYING AND MAPPING IN RAMANAGARA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA
Keywords: None
Abstract: Prudent management of natural resources is crucial to ensure sustenance, which entails understanding landscape dynamics to maintain the integrity of the ecosystem and sustain ecosystem services. Assessment of temporal land use and land cover aid in assessing landscape dynamics. Anthropogenic factors such as unplanned developmental activities through urbanization, industrialization, and consequently increased population, modernization, and the imperative socioeconomic phenomenon play a pivotal role in land use land cover transition. Unplanned developmental activities leading to accelerated land use changes result in urban expansion, influencing socioeconomic changes and triggering farmland loss and open spaces. Consequences of the decline in green and blue spaces are increase in the local temperature, decline of carbon sequestration potential coupled with escalated greenhouse gas emissions due to urbanization, deforestation, land degradation and health issues. Therefore, it necessitates understanding land use dynamics with the precise projections of likely land use changes aids in for formulating policies to adopt sustainable management strategies.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Alkemade, R., van Bussel, L.G., Rodríguez, S.L. and Schipper, A.M., 2022. Global biodiversity assessments need to consider mixed multifunctional land-use systems. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 56, p.101174. Arsanjani, J.J., Helbich, M., Kainz, W. and Boloorani, A.D., 2013. Integration of logistic regression, Markov chain and cellular automata models to simulate urban expansion. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 21, pp.265-275.
Literature cited 2: Barrett, E.C. and Grant, C.K., 1976. Comparisons of cloud cover evaluated from Landsat imagery and meteorological stations across the British Isles. Bharath, S., Rajan, K.S. and Ramachandra, T.V., 2021, Modeling Forest Landscape Dynamics. Hauppauge: NOVA Science Publishers, USA, pp.249.


ID: 65911
Title: A study on the role of epidermal tissues in limb regeneration in a ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coccinellidae)
Author: Saumya Rawat, Shriza Rai and Geetanjali Mishra
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1503-1506 (2024)
Subject: A study on the role of epidermal tissues in limb regeneration in a ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Coccinellidae)
Keywords: Amputation, holometabolous, leg development, metamorphosis, pupa.
Abstract: Larval systems are de-differentiated and reorganized in insects undergoing complete metamorphosis, and body plan of adults are established during pupal stage. In ladybirds, limbs amputated in larval stages are regenerated during pupation. Given that changes in pupa are akin to embryogenesis, does the lost limbs are redeveloped as a part of metamorphosis or has some prepatterning initiated prior pupation? To test this, we exposed third larval instars of Cheilomenes sexmaculata to amputation and scraped off the epidermal tissues from the amputation site every 24 h post amputation. We observed that the limb regeneration did not occur in the treatment where scrapping was done. Thus, the present study highlights the critical role of epidermal tissues at the wound site in limb regeneration, emphasizing that these tissues probably contain essential preregenerating cues.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Engel, M. S. and Grimaldi, D., Evolution of the Insects, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005. Rolff, J., Johnston, P. R. and Reynolds, S., Complete metamorphosis of insects. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol Sci., 2019, 374(1783), 20190063.
Literature cited 2: Erezyilmaz, D. F., Imperfect eggs and oviform nymphs: a history of ideas about the origins of insect metamorphosis. Integr. Comp. Biol., 2006, 46(6), 795–807. Ozerova, A. M. and Gelfand, M. S., Recapitulation of the embryonic transcriptional program in holometabolous insect pupae. Sci. Rep., 2022, 12(1), 17570.


ID: 65910
Title: A low-cost multi-fuel biomass furnace for food processing in rural areas
Author: Anil K. Rajvanshi and Nandini Nimbkar
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1501-1503 (2024)
Subject: A low-cost multi-fuel biomass furnace for food processing in rural areas
Keywords: Food processing, loose biomass furnace, rural areas, sweet sorghum syrup.
Abstract: A low-cost, multi-fuel biomass furnace of about 170– 670 kW (thermal) capacity for food processing has been developed for rural areas. The biomass combustion in the furnace is clean, with very little smoke. Such small, clean biomass-burning furnaces are not available in India; hence, their development will fill the need gap. Details of the development are presented in the present communication.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Food Products Data, ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, ASHRAE, New York, USA, 1972. Rajvanshi, A. K., Development of a fully mechanized plant to produce syrup from sweet sorghum. Project report submitted by NARI to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, September 2022
Literature cited 2: . Prabhakar, K. and Mallika, E. N., Dried foods. In Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology (eds Batt, C. A. and Tortorello, M. L.), Elsevier Ltd, 2nd edn, 2014, ISBN 978-0-12-384733-1. Rai, S., Unregulated jaggery units add to massive pollution despite CPCB orders, Times of India, 10 November 2017.


ID: 65909
Title: Arsenic contamination in groundwater of the Majha belt of Punjab and its probable carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health hazards
Author: Hardev Singh Virk
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1495-1500 (2024)
Subject: Arsenic contamination in groundwater of the Majha belt of Punjab and its probable carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health hazards
Keywords: Arsenic, cancer risk, groundwater, health hazards, mitigation.
Abstract: Arsenic is widespread in groundwater in India. High levels of arsenic in the three districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran (also called Majha belt) have caused a crisis in Punjab. According to the Indian Council of Agriculture Research report, 13 districts of Punjab have arsenic content beyond the safety limit. This study aims to estimate probable health hazards due to ingestion of water with high levels of arsenic in the groundwater of Majha belt. Analysis of groundwater samples done using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were collected from the Department of Water Supply and Sanitation, Government of Punjab, Mohali. The highest arsenic contamination of 111 ppb was found in the groundwater of Amritsar district, followed by Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran districts. The average value of hazard quotient (HQ) for children and adults in Amritsar district is estimated to be 11.13 and 8.0 respectively. HQ values for all the 650 habitations surveyed in the Majha belt of Punjab are greater than 1, which is a matter of concern because of high-risk potential for developing adverse carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health hazards. The predicted values for cancer induction in children and adults of Amritsar district are 500 and 360 per million respectively. Mitigation of arsenic in groundwater is an urgent need in the Majha belt of Punjab.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Vikaspedia, Arsenic Contamination in Ground Water in India; https://vikaspedia.in/energy/environment/know-your-environment/ water/arsenic-contamination-in-ground-water-in-india#:~:text= The%20most%20affected%20areas%20are,up%20to%20100%20m- %20depth (accessed on 6 September 2023). Kumar, S. and Pati, J., Assessment of groundwater arsenic contamination using machine learning in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. J. Water Health, 2022, 20(5), 829–848.
Literature cited 2: Shaji, E., Santosh, M., Sarath, K. V., Prakash, P., Deep Chand, V. and Divya, B. V., Arsenic contamination of groundwater: a global synopsis with focus on the Indian Peninsula. Geosci. Front., 2021, 12(3), 101079. Virk, H. S., A crisis situation due to uranium and heavy metal contamination of ground waters in Punjab state, India: a preliminary report. Res. Rev. J. Toxicol., 2017, 7(2), 6–11.


ID: 65908
Title: Monitoring of pesticide residues and risk assessment for consumer safety in rice samples from Andhra Pradesh, India
Author: Jhansi Hima Varsha Valluri, Cherukuri Sreenivasa Rao , Ch. Chiranjeevi , V. Srinivasa Rao and P. Kishore Varma
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1485-1494 (2024)
Subject: Monitoring of pesticide residues and risk assessment for consumer safety in rice samples from Andhra Pradesh, India
Keywords: Food safety, pesticides, residues, rice cultivation, risk assessment.
Abstract: A systematic study monitored the pesticide residues in commercially important food grains, specifically rice produced, consumed and exported from India. Residues of 18 commonly used pesticides (acephate, buprofezin, carbendazim, hexaconazole, isoprothiolane, lambda cyhalothrin, profenofos, propiconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, flubendiamide, imidacloprid, tricyclazole, indoxacarb, monocrotophos, quinalphos, thiamethoxam) were determined in 135 samples collected from farmer fields and 15 samples from markets from Guntur and Palnadu districts of Andhra Pradesh, India. The residues were extracted using the modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method and quantified by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem–mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Propiconazole, tricyclazole and tebuconazole were the most frequently detected pesticides. The farm-gate rice (de-husked brown) samples from zero budget natural farmers and polished rice samples from markets of both districts were free from pesticide residues. No pesticides were detected in 71.11% and 74.44% of all the farm-gate rice samples collected from farmers of Palnadu and Guntur districts respectively.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Verma, D. K. and Shukla, K., Nutritional value of rice and their importance. Indian Farmers’ Digest., 2011, 44(1), 21–22. Indiastat, Export of quantity and value of basmati and non-basmati rice in India, 23 March 2021; https://www.indiastat.com/table/ foodgrains-export-/export-quantity-value-basmati-rice-non-basmatiric/20960 (accessed on 25 June 2023).
Literature cited 2: MoA&FW, Selected state-wise area, production and productivity of rice in India. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, 2020– 21; https://www.indiastat.com/table/agriculture/state-season-wise-areaproduction-productivity-ric/1423615 (accessed on 5 July 2023). MoA&FW, Selected state-wise area, production and productivity of rice in India, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, 1950– 51; https://www.indiastat.com/table/agriculture/selected-state-wisearea-production-productivity-r/31740 (


ID: 65907
Title: Genetic diversity of Melipona mandacaia, Smith 1863 in natural and rational breeding populations
Author: Amaro Antonio Silva Neto , Eva Mônica Sarmento da Silva and Michely Correia Diniz
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1479-1484 (2024)
Subject: Genetic diversity of Melipona mandacaia, Smith 1863 in natural and rational breeding populations
Keywords: Genetic-molecular markers, mandaçaia, meliponicultu
Abstract: The diversity and genetic structure of natural and rational breeding populations of Melipona mandacaia in the city of Petrolina-PE-Brazil is analysed in this study. Worker bees from four different locations in the city were genotyped with four inter-simple sequence repeats molecular genetic markers. The presence and absence of DNA fragments were converted into binary characters using Microsoft Excel software. The data were analysed using the programs GenAlEx and POPGENE. Thirty two DNA fragments were amplified, and a polymorphism of 81.25% of these fragments was detected. The polymorphic information content of the markers ranged from 0.46 to 0.49. This study examines the genetic diversity of artificial and natural populations of M. mandacaia. The data found in this work may help meliponiculturists with information for better management of artificial populations of Mandaçaia and, consequently, help in the conservation of this species
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Alves, R. M. O., Carvalho, C. A. L. and Souza, B. D. A., Pollen spectrum of honey samples from Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Acta Sci. Biol. Sci., 2006, 28(1), 65–70. 2. Batalha-Filho, H., Waldschmidt, A. M. and Alves, R. M. O., Potential distribution of the endemic caatinga stingless bee, Melipona mandacaia (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Magistra, 2011, 23(3), 129–133.
Literature cited 2: Kuhn-Neto, B., Contrera, F. A., Castro, M. S. and Nieh, J. C., Long distance foraging and recruitment by a stingless bee, Melipona mandacaia. Apidologie, 2009, 40(4), 472–480. Bárbara, M., Machado, C., Sodré, G., Dias, L., Estevinho, L. and de Carvalho, C., Microbiological assessment, nutritional characterization and phenolic compounds of bee pollen from Melipona mandacaia Smith, 1983. Molecules, 2015


ID: 65906
Title: Exploring community attitudes and perceptions towards solid waste management: a case study of Kerala, India
Author: Vishnudatha Venu , Akshay Ranjith and S. Ambika
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1472-1478 (2024)
Subject: Exploring community attitudes and perceptions towards solid waste management: a case study of Kerala, India
Keywords: All-inclusive strategy, perception analysis, questionnaire survey, solid waste management, Spearman correlation
Abstract: The present study in Kerala aimed to investigate the perceptions and behaviours of 430 respondents towards household waste generation and management. The survey outcomes were used to determine the personal attributes, awareness and perceptions of the people towards solid waste management. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to identify the possible correlation between the personal attributes of respondents and their awareness and perceptions. The results showed that most participants fell within the age range of 20– 60; majority of them were graduates having an income above Rs 40,000. Food waste was found to be the predominant type of waste generated, about 65%. Over 50% of the respondents considered waste as a resource. The study also revealed that education plays a crucial role in addressing waste management problems. Almost 85% of the respondents supported imposing penalties for open dumping of waste and 63% supported composting of domestic waste. Respondents showed a growing willingness to act against improper waste management and disposal. Thus, the study brings out the importance of education and awareness programmes in shaping individuals’ perspectives towards waste management and reducing waste generation as well as highlights the need for an all-inclusive strategy for effective solid waste management.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: Kaza, S., Yao, L. C., Bhada-Tata, P. and Van Woerden, F., What a Waste 2.0, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC, USA, 2018. Mariamma and Sivakumar, A study about primary education in Kerala. Int. J. Acad. Res. Dev., 2021, 6, 4–6
Literature cited 2: Kerala State Planning Board, Economic Review, 2020, Government of Kerala, 2022. Pathak, V. and Kushwaha, B. P., Assessment of municipal solid waste management in Satna. Indian J. Environ. Prot., 2013, 33, 321–328


ID: 65905
Title: A study on analytical techniques and statistical design for tertiary treatment of secondary wastewater using Zetag-4120 coagulant
Author: Priya Singh, Mahendra Kumar Pal*, Prabhat Kumar Singh Dikshit and Goutham Banerjee
Editor: S.K.Satheesh
Year: 2024
Publisher: Current Science Association and Indian Academy of Sciences.
Source: ENVIS, CES & EWRG, CES
Reference: Current Science Vol. 126 (12) 25 June 1464-1471 (2024)
Subject: A study on analytical techniques and statistical design for tertiary treatment of secondary wastewater using Zetag-4120 coagulant
Keywords: Polyelectrolytes, regression prediction model, response surface methodology, tertiary wastewater treatment, Zetag-4120.
Abstract: The primary and secondary wastewater treatments from different sewage treatment plants are of great importance not only for removing pollutants but also for using treated water for different purposes. The latter involves using suitable coagulants and their optimal dosages for the treatment. Given this, the present study identified the most suitable coagulant for tertiary treatment and its optimal dosage to achieve the maximum total suspended solids (TSS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) removal. We used six coagulants (alum, ferric chloride, polyaluminium chloride (PAC), Zetag4120, Mecafloc-25 and Rothfloc-27) and found that Zetag-4120 is the cost-efficient coagulant at varying coagulant dosage. We arrived at this conclusion based on several experiments using varying coagulant dosages. Furthermore, the regression prediction models for BOD and TSS removal for coagulant Zetag-4120 have been generated using statistical models and validated by calculating R2 value, F-test and Lack-of-fit test using ANOVA. Optimization analysis suggests the optimal dosage, initial wastewater pH and settling time to be 1.86 mg/l, 6.73 and 89.12 min respectively. Furthermore, BOD and TSS removal efficiency values are 50.0% and 92.4% respectively. The treated wastewater has BOD and TSS equal to 12.27 and 5.66 mg/l respectively, conforming to the standard for re-usability of treated water for unrestricted irrigation.
Location: T E 15 New Biology building
Literature cited 1: . Hamilton, A. J., Stagnitti, F., Premier, R., Boland, A. M. and Hale, G., Quantitative microbial risk assessment models for consumption of raw vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 2006, 72(5), 3284–3290. Mok, H., Barker, S. F. and Hamilton, A. J., A probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus disease burden from wastewater irrigation of vegetables in Shepparton, Australia. Water Res., 2014, 54, 347–362.
Literature cited 2: Symonds, E. M., Verbyla, M. E., Lukasik, J. O., Kafle, R. C., Breitbart, M. and Mihelcic, J. R., A case study of enteric virus removal and insights into the associated risk of water reuse for two wastewater treatment pond systems in Bolivia. Water Res., 2014, 65, 257–270. Environment Protection Agency, India, Guidelines for Water Reuse, Office of Water Development, 2004, 450.